• What are the different options to develop your field?
  • How can multiple Field and Area Development Plans be prepared taking into consideration all the technical and economic aspects?
  • Where and how many number of wells should be drilled to meet the production objectives?
  • What are the recovery techniques you should follow to maximize the extraction of the Hydrocarbons in place?
  • What are the Technical and Economic analyses of the installations and facilities that will be required based on the objectives?
  • How can you model and simulate the various uncertainties present at the field and portfolio level?
  • What is the original Oil and Gas in place in your reservoir?
  • How can you estimateit accurately for economic viability analysis?
  • What are the reserves of hydrocarbons that are economically extractable?
  • Which methods should be followed to maximize the production of hydrocarbons?
  • Which EOR methods are best suited to your needs and constraints?
  • How can you estimate the production rates when the fields start producing?
  • What data is required to make a realistic approximation of OOIP and Reserves?
  • Do you have sufficient data to result in a robust model that fulfills all your needs?
  • Should you follow the Top-Down or the Bottom-up approach to Reservoir Modeling ?
  • How can you integrate phase behavior of the Reservoir fluids in your model?
  • Is your model optimized for numerical simulation?
  • How can you fine-tune your model to match historical pressure and production data?
  • What are the steps involved in building an Integrated Earth Model?
  • How can you get a realistic representation of the subsurface architecture of your reservoir?
  • Which is the best modeling tool that meets your technical and economic criteria?
  • How can you represent all the structural, sedimentary and petrophysical details of the reservoir and eventually integrate the data into a shared Earth model?
  • Does your model need to be subjected to upscaling?

Reservoir Management Services

iOG Solutions provides end-to-end consulting services for management of reservoirs, utilizing state-of-the-art geoscience and engineering technologies. Our extensive domain expertise extends to aspects of reservoir behaviour and its’ properties and fluid movement in a dynamic surrounding environment with respect to fluid contact, temperature, pressure and saturation. Through this, customers are able to understand the reservoir extent, fluid flow via porous & permeable media and to arrive at estimates indicating the life of the Reservoir.

Following are some of the reservoir management services we provide to our upstream clients

  • Static Reservoir modeling (Characterization):

    To determine reservoir architecture and quality with respect to distribution of porosity, permeability and rock properties.

    • Build Reservoir Model: 3D Structural & 3D Petrophysical Model
    • Allocate Petrophysical Properties to each grid
    • Connect Facies
    • Enable Upscaling
  • Dynamic Reservoir Modeling (Simulation):

    To predict the flow of fluids via Porous & Permeable Zones

    • Dynamic Reservoir Simulation using an industry standard state-of-the-art simulator
  • Reservoir Engineering:

    To determine the size of extractable reserves and Production rates; identify and plan for the best recovery methods.

  • Field Development Planning:

    To evaluate multiple development options for a field and select the best option for integrated field development.

iOG helps customers through solutions on below Reservoir Engineering Analysis:

Static Reservoir modeling, also sometimes referred to as Reservoir Characterization, is carried out to determine reservoir architecture and quality with respect to distribution of porosity, permeability and rock properties. It can be summarized in the following steps:

Data Preparation

Data preparation consists of organizing, formatting and uploading data in standard software packages. It is followed by a quality-control process for generating accurate and curated data required in further modeling steps. Refer to iOG Data Management offerings.

3D Structural Modelling

Preparation of the 3D structural model consists of the bounding surfaces and the faults. In this model, the seismic surfaces are generally converted to depth and adjusted for the well tops of the key marker surfaces. Some key elements of 3D structural modeling include

  • Fault geometry
  • Fault-to-fault relations
  • Ensuring that fault-to-bounding-surface contacts are a perfect match (this prevents later problems during flow simulation)
  • That the modeling is restricted to those faults that directly impact fluid flow

3D Sedimentary Modelling

Sequence stratigraphy based internal stratigraphic layering (bedding geometry) and the facies are used for building the 3D Sedimentary Model. It involves the preparation of the following models sequentially.

  • 3D Stratigraphic Model
  • 3D Facies Model

3D Petrophysical Modelling

After facies modeling, the petrophysical properties are interpolated on a facies-by-facies basis, using the sedimentary model as a template.


The high-resolution petrophysical model often has many millions of grid cells and it needs to be simplified (Upscaled) before proceeding to the flow simulation. Upscaling, also referred to as homogenization, is substituting a heterogeneous property region consisting of fine grid cells with an equivalent homogeneous region made up of a single coarse-grid cell with an effective property value. Upscaling the grid geometry also upscales the petrophysical properties.
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Dynamic Reservoir Simulation is an area of reservoir engineering in which computer models are used to predict the flow of fluids. Reservoir simulation models are not only used for development of new fields but also for developed fields, ongoing reservoir management, design of hydraulic fracturing, evaluation of water flooding and application of EOR processes.

Dynamic Reservoir Simulation

Following are the three key steps in developing and utilizing dynamic reservoir models:

PVT Analysis

Phase Behaviour (PVT) analysis is a pre-requisite for Dynamic Reservoir simulation. It is performed on representative fluid samples collected normally during the drilling of the first exploration well. Reservoir Fluid analysis delivers results to use in reservoir engineering studies and also supports the design and optimization of processes and facilities.

iOG has capabilities to analyse the results obtained from a variety of lab tests and help you in analysing phase diagrams, mixing rules, EOS, EOS tuning, and fluid properties.

Numerical Simulation:

We help our clients to analyse and predict fluid behaviour in the reservoir over time using a series of mathematical simulations and model.

  • Solving the numerical models using numerical methods such as Finite Difference or Finite Element.
  • Providing numerical solutions to hydrodynamic problems of fluids in petroleum reservoir-well systems.
  • Predicting future performance of the Reservoirs. This enables making intelligent decisions to optimize the Economic Recovery of the Hydrocarbons from the reservoir.

History matching

History Matching is the procedure of adjusting appropriate reservoir model parameters iteratively, so that the model reproduces the behaviour of the actual reservoir as closely as possible. It mainly consists of adjusting suitable reservoir parametric data to match past production and pressure data. We can help our clients with the following procedures involved in the process:

  • Defining the objectives of the History-Matching Process
  • Determining the method to be used, the relevant historical data to be matched and setting up criteria for a successful match based on the availability and quality of data and the objectives of the process.
  • Determining the reservoir data that can be adjusted and the confidence range of that data.

Reservoir Modelling

With the help of our Reservoir Engineering team parameters which are sensitive to flow are tuned. In some case, we help our clients in changing the modeling parameters and generating an updated reservoir model.

Numerical Simulation:

We help our clients with mathematical simulation of the generated numerical model of a reservoir's petrophysical characteristics to analyze and predict fluid behavior in the reservoir over time.

The complex behaviors of multiphase flow, nonlinearity of the governing equations, and the heterogeneity and irregular shape of a reservoir system generally make it difficult for developing and analytical solutions. In such cases, these models are solved with numerical methods such as Finite Difference or Finite Element. Reservoir simulation provides numerical solutions to hydrodynamic problems of fluids in petroleum reservoir-well systems. The simulation results help in predicting future performance of the Reservoirs for making intelligent decisions to optimize the Economic Recovery of the Hydrocarbons from the reservoir.
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iOG Solutions’ Reservoir Engineering services help clients in determination of the size of available and extractable reserves and Production rates; followed by identification and planning of the best recovery methods. We help our clients in optimizing the production rates while while maximizing economic hydrocarbon recovery over life of reservoir.

Our reservoir engineering teams use state-of-the-art technology and software alongside extensive experience-based knowledge of different geological settings and drainage mechanisms to support you in making decisions about your asset viability.

iOG’s Reservoir Engineering involves the following broad steps and objectives:

Reservoir Engineering Services

Combining knowledge from diverse disciplines such as geoscience, drilling, completion and facility engineering, our team of professionals can support customers in the ways best suiting their needs in terms of reservoir management.

We provide the following Reservoir Engineering services to our clients

  • Volumetric and Material Balance Methods for determination of Hydrocarbons present
  • Primary and Supplementary Oil Recovery Planning
  • Reservoir optimization strategy development
  • Waterflood Performance Evaluation
  • Production Froecasting
  • Reservoir Surveillance
  • Economic Analysis and modeling
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Field development planning (FDP) is the process of evaluating multiple development options for a field and selecting the best option based on assessing trade-offs among multiple factors. It gives you the best technical solutions for field optimization. iOG performs detailed and comprehensive field development plans to cover all technical aspects inclusive of seismic, geological, petrophysical, reservoir engineering, production technology, drilling, facilities, completion design, surface facilities, economics and risk assessment.

Our integrated field development planning approach helps establish:

  • Number and location of wells to be drilled for attaining production objectives
  • Recovery techniques to maximize the extraction of fluids within the reservoir
  • Type and cost of installations and facilities based on the objectives and operating environment
  • Separation and treatment systems for gas and fluids
Field Development Planning Services

iOG deploys integrated subsurface teams that engage in developing Field Development Plans at different stages of a project’s lifecycle:

  • Conceptual Area Development Plans (ADPs) and/or Field Development Plans (FDPs) conducted at the Identify and Assess phases
  • Comprehensive ADP/FDPs conducted in support of the selection of an optimal development concept within the Concept Select stage
  • Optimization of ADPs/FDPs through Definition and Implementation phases, adjusting plans based on calibrated new data and information
  • Appraisal and Uncertainty Reduction: We advise clients on the key uncertainties that appraisal should address to accelerate final Investment Decisions and produce integrated field development plans that will underpin project sanction. We also provide implementation services for the industry, using leading third-party software for the quantification of uncertainty, risks and value of information, during the Field Development stage.
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