• How can well log data be translated into a meaningful Petrophysical model of reservoir?
  • What are the different methods of acquiring Petrophysical data?
  • How can Formation Evaluation be performed using Log curves from well bore?
  • How are petrophysical properties mapped to geocellular grids in geocellular models?
  • How do stochastic and deterministic modeling techniques differ in their modeling approach?
  • How can qualitative preliminary geological investigation help in understanding the subsurface geology ?How is Basin Modelinghelps in deciphering geological history of the field?
  • How can Sequence Stratigraphic modeling techniquesbe used to detect hidden ‘pockets’ of hydrocarbons?
  • Which workflow is preferable to model and integrate different structural elements ?
  • Which is the best Facies modeling technique tounderstand lateral variation of depositional element in the Reservoir ?
  • How can geostatistics based petrophysical property modeling techniques be applied in sub-surface modeling of reservoir.
  • How can geomechanical models be developed and employed to optimize drilling and production strategies?
  • Explain the process of interpreting and extracting the relevant information from the Seismic Data?
  • How can different geological features be interpreted from seismic data?
  • What extra information about the subsurface can AVO analysis yield technique is best suited to enhance your interpretation and model?
  • How are the Seismic and Well log data tied together to give new insights to the rock properties of the subsurface?
  • How can Attribute Analysis help in distinguishing reservoir and lithology features?
  • How do Seismic Inversion techniques help in converting interface properties into rock properties (Impedance)?
  • Which Inversion techniques are best suited to achieve the various objectives?
  • How can Borehole Seismic techniques help in generating extremely high resolution images of wells?

Geology & Geophysics

iOG understands the various paradigms of the subsurface ecosystem and its complexity. The domain knowledge and expertise in multiple disciplines (Geophysics, Geology, Petrophysics, and Geochemistry) enables it to understand, interpret and model the subsurface.

Over the years, iOG’s experts have developed and optimized a strategic approach to perform subsurface modelling as illustrated below:

Interpretation Modeling Workflow

It broadly covers the following knowledge areas:

  • Geophysics
  • Geology
  • Petrophysics

Geophysical Interpretation is the extraction of subsurface geological information from the data obtained using various techniques such as Seismic, Gravitational, Magnetic etc. Geophysical Interpretation is best carried out incorporating and integrating Geological Data and we combine our expertise in both techniques to give our clients the best results. We offer Interpretation services for data collected over the entire spectrum of Geophysical techniques:

  • Seismic
  • Gravitational including Gravity gradiometry
  • Magnetic
  • Electrical & Electromagnetic including Resistivity Tomography and Induced Polarization

We use industry-standard tools for seismic interpretation which enable workflows such as:

  • Regional scale seismic mapping
  • Detailed reservoir scale stratigraphic investigations
  • Quantitative Seismic Interpretation
  • Studying effects of specific rocks and fluids on seismic amplitudes
  • Interpreting comprehensive geometric and physical seismic data attributes
  • Synthetic modeling
  • Time-to-depth conversion

Our domain expertise includes:

Velocity Modelling

Is a key element in imaging subsurface geology. We use a wide range of velocity model building algorithms and workflows, including full waveform inversion, reflection tomography, anisotropic earth models and powerful refraction topographies

Geophysical 3D Inversion techniques

used in the subsurface modelling procedure to extract more information by converting geophysical measurements into 3D images of the subsurface which are integrated with other surface and subsurface geological observations to generate a meaningful geological model

Well based geophysics

Borehole Seismic Services inclusive of

  • Single Well Techniques like sonic logging and Single well imaging.
  • Multiple Well techniques
  • Well to Surface Techniques including check shot surveys, VSP, reverse VSP, and seismic-while-drilling.
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One of our strongest pillars, our Geological Interpretation suite can help our clients in addressing all their Geological modelling related needs. As a part of our Geology & Geophysics suite, iOG provides the following Geological Services to our Clients:

We help our clients in understanding the overall geological setting of the reservoir in terms of the structural element, tectonics, stratigraphic sequence, depositional environment, rock types etc.

Our team of experienced geologists can complete a preliminary through evaluation of the prospect/basin and integrate all publically available information and data to generate a report and help in deciding the workflow to be used in the actual subsurface modelling.

involves characterising a petroleum system in terms of source rock and accumulation of oil and gas. Digital simulation of the system is deployed to understand migration pathways. Our experts will guide you through all the steps involved in the evaluation of the geo-history (or depositional model through time) of the basin to find out the timing of the deposition source and reservoir rock, generation of hydrocarbon and effective migration to the reservoir.

Modelling which is a relatively new technique can be used to understand the depositional sequence geometries and stratigraphic architecture of a sedimentary basin. Our Consultants will help in establishing a detailed correlation of the sedimentary layers and delineate the depositional system in a better way.

Is becoming increasingly important for geologically complex basins occurring in thrust and rift settings.

We can help our clients in identifying the various structural elements in terms of faults, fractures, joints etc. during the Geological Interpretation and then integrate them to build a structural framework, which would serve as a pre-cursor to any reservoir modelling and provide the skeleton to the 3D model. These structural models incorporate fault-to-fault, fault-to-surface and surface-to-surface relationships to identify various blocks for modelling.

is often an important component of geo-statistical Reservoir Characterization and facilitates construction of superior reservoir models for complex reservoirs. Knowledge of the facies make-up and the depositional environments provide a strong basis for a true distribution of reservoir properties.

We use state-of-art facies modelling techniques such as sequential indicator simulation, Truncated Gaussian simulation, Plurigaussian simulation etc. In addition to these pixel based modelling techniques, we also perform other object based facies modelling techniques.

iOG also provides a unique solution to evaluate and analyse well log data, seismic data, and core data to generate 3D geo-mechanical models. These can subsequently be used to optimize drilling and production strategies. We can help our clients in developing 3D geo-mechanical models to address challenges related to coupled, hydro-thermo-mechanical analysis for compaction and subsidence, fault seal and cap rock integrity analysis, identification of potentially permeable natural fractures for well placement etc.

Our solutions can enable clients to manage multi-well, multi-log facies log correlations & calculations, thus enabling the correlation, interpretation, mapping, display and QC of seismic, geological and production data in multiple 2D and 3D environments. We can also help them in displaying well information along multiple tracks (log, scale, markers, sequence stratigraphy, image, stratigraphic and chronostratigraphic columns, annotations, schematic, seismic, intervals) either on traditional vertical well sections or on projected wells in a cross section and integration of production data onto the log display and production maps

Dynamic cross-section tools can facilitate the creation of dynamic well-to-well and arbitrary cross sections. This can help users in navigating easily through 3D space, seeing well, horizon, fault, and seismic projections update automatically. Our experts can also help you in selecting between multiple views to view stratigraphic datums, seismic backdrops, horizontal wells and true stratigraphic thickness cross sections as per your needs.

Our in depth expertise in Geology and Geophysics can help you in restoring 3D basin and reservoir models in complex areas where seismic data is scarce or of poor quality. This helps in the assessment of basin fluid migration and fracture distribution within the reservoir model and enables the validation of subsurface models

Analysis of fault displacement maps, fault juxtaposition and smear gouge ratio computation accounting for the smearing potential and computation of Fracture probability volumes can be effectively performed through this.

Analysis of the client´s well log data generates information to perform physical properties feasibility studies for the area of interest. This can be used in all aspects of geophysical work. This physical properties framework is used in strategic decision making and inverse modelling.

Formation Evaluation/ Log analysis:

Formation evaluation techniques are generally performed using the log curve generated during the logging program. Our team of Petrophysicists can carry out a complete suite of formation evaluation procedures to establish the petrophysical characteristics of a reservoir zone.

Petrophysical Analysis

We can also help you in analyzing the data received from various high end, state-of-art logging techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic, Resistivity imaging, Acoustic Imaging etc. iOG’s formation evaluation workflow will help in identifying sand-shale sequence, volume of shale, net-to-gross, oil-water/gas-oil contacts etc. in the well bore. We are capable of carrying out analysis of wellbore seismic data.

Following is a partial list of our Petrophysical Interpretation competencies:

Logging program designRobust multi-well analysis
Integrated formation evaluation (vertical and horizontal wells)Fractured reservoir description and quantification
Probabilistic lithology and porosity modelingCapillary pressure and J-function fluid saturation analysis
Unconventional reservoir petrophysical modelingCore analysis
Production log evaluation

iOG can provide a complete seismic to simulation sub-surface modelling solution to your asset or field. The solution offered by our highly experienced team of professionals will help reduce geological uncertainty and enhance production, thereby enabling an overall increase in return on investment (ROI). Our unique volume-based Models help in unlocking the mismatch between the structural and reservoir model. We will help you in creating a consistent reservoir model incorporating all available geological and geophysical information.

We also provide our clients with Petrophysical Modelling services as part of our Reservoir Characterization suite. Our petrophysical modelling technique is used for generating a distribution model of porosity, permeability, net to gross, saturations etc. into a geocellular grid. The generated petrophysical models are then conditioned to facies models. We can help our clients in generating both deterministic and stochastic models of the reservoir. Our approach to the overall Subsurface modelling and Reservoir Characterization is depicted in the following figure.

Once a 3D subsurface model is constructed, iOG can help you through the conclusive step of analysis of the prospect in terms of prospect ranking volumetric. We can produce various volumetric scenarios of your prospects and provide a risk analysis. Our experts will carry out a sensitive analysis of various reservoir parameters to generate a risk mapping of your field.


Subsurface Modeling
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